An Economic History of the American Steel Industry by Robert P. Rogers

By Robert P. Rogers

This publication presents a easy define of the heritage of the yankee metal undefined, a area of the economic system that has been a major a part of the economic process. The ebook begins with the 1830's, while the yankee iron and metal resembled the normal iron generating zone that had existed within the outdated global for hundreds of years, and it results in 2001. The made from this undefined, metal, is an alloy of iron and carbon that has turn into the main used steel on the earth. The very measurement of the metal and its place within the smooth economic climate provide it an strange relevance to the industrial, social, and political system.

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59 million tons, going from 33 percent to 77 percent of the total. 1 Steel production in the United States broken down by process type 1900–1920, 1,000s of tons Year Total steel production Open hearth Bessemer Crucible Electric furnace 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 11,410 22,420 29,230 36,010 47,190 3,810 10,050 18,490 26,520 36,590 7,490 12,250 10,540 9,280 9,950 110 110 140 130 80 0 10 60 80 570 Source: Hogan, 1971, pp. 413 and 420. 34 An Economic History of the American Steel Industry the crucible process in most specialty uses.

With two converters, a plant could produce about 60,000 tons a year. In comparison, an average blast furnace BF at that time produced 1,000 tons a year. Thus, the Bessemer converter processed a lot more material than any other part of the steel and iron process. The Pneumatic Steel Association became a remarkable mechanism for the diffusion of technology. 2 The first eleven Bessemer steel plants in the United States Size of vessel Date plant opened Company Location Number of converters Kelly Pneumatic Process Company Albany and Rensselaer Iron and Steel Company Pennsylvania Steel Company Freedom Iron and Steel Works Cleveland Rolling Mill Company Cambria Iron Company Union Iron and Steel Company North Chicago Rolling Mill Company Joliet Steel Works Bethlehem Iron Company Wyandotte, MI 1 2 tons 1864 Troy, NY 1 2 tons 1865 Steelton, PA Lewiston, PA Cleveland, OH Johnstown, PA Chicago, IL North Chicago, Il 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 tons 5 tons 6 tons 6 tons 5 tons 6 tons 1867 1868 1868 1871 1871 1872 Joliet, IL Bethlehem, PA 2 2 5 tons 7 tons 1873 1873 Source: Hogan, 1971, p.

Eventually the two companies merged together, each having an equal stake in the coke and the steel. The coke was now merely transferred within one organization. Consolidation became one of the answers to the problems of the instability and the internal governance problems. There were three ways in which steel firms could consolidate. The first was backwards vertical integration where the iron and steel companies would buy the firms supplying coal and iron ore. An example was the purchase by Bethlehem of the iron ore mine in Cuba.

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