By Mariano Martín
Proposing a entire research of using substitute resources of strength and applied sciences to provide fuels and tool, this publication describes the strength price chain from harvesting the uncooked fabric, (i.e sun, wind, biomass or shale fuel) by means of research of the processing steps into energy, fuels and/or chemical substances and eventually the distribution of the products.
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Additional resources for Alternative Energy Sources and Technologies: Process Design and Operation
Van den Heever and Grossmann (2000) extended the work of Iyer et al. (1998) and proposed a multiperiod generalized disjunctive programming model for oil ﬁeld infrastructure planning for which they developed a bilevel decomposition method. As opposed to Iyer and Grossmann (1998), they explicitly incorporated a nonlinear reservoir model into the formulation but did not consider the drill-rig limitations. Grothey and McKinnon (2000) addressed an operational planning problem using an MINLP formulation where gas has to be injected into a network of low pressure oil wells to induce flow from these wells.
The problem considers ﬁxed topology and is concerned with the decisions involving the oil production proﬁles and operation/shut-in times of the wells in each time period assuming nonlinear reservoir behavior. Lin and Floudas (2003) considered the long-term investment and operations planning of the integrated gas ﬁeld site. A continuous-time modeling and optimization approach was proposed introducing the concept of event points and allowing the well platforms to come online at potentially any time within planning horizon.
With this motivation, the objective of this chapter is to present a comprehensive review of a uniﬁed modeling framework and solution strategies to address the issues of complex ﬁscal rules and endogenous uncertainties in the development planning of offshore oil and gas ﬁeld infrastructure. In particular, the chapter emphasizes the need to have as a basis an efﬁcient deterministic model that can account for various alternatives in the decision-making process for a multi-ﬁeld site incorporating sufﬁcient level of details, while being computationally tractable for large instances.