By Gary England
Following on from the profitable structure of the former variations, Fertility and Obstetrics within the Horse 3e is a realistic and elementary consultant to equine replica. From explaining the anatomy of the mares reproductive tract to detailing difficulties encountered while pregnant, it covers all of the significant components of shock in addition to together with the newest advancements in diagnostic systems and therapy innovations.
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Extra resources for Fertility and Obstetrics in the Horse (Library Vet Practice)
2). The uterus has a central, homogeneous, relatively hypoechoic, region surrounded by a peripheral hyperechoic layer. The echogenicity of the endometrium and the uterine cross-sectional diameter vary during the oestrous cycle; during oestrus the diameter increases and the uterus becomes increasingly hypoechoic, with central radiating hyperechoic lines which are typical of endometrial oedema. The proximal uterine horns are of smaller diameter than the uterine body. The ovaries can be located by tracing the uterine horns laterally.
40 Fertility and Obstetrics in the Horse • The cervix takes 2–4 days to change from oestrous to luteal and vice versa. • Uterine size and tone are similarly not diagnostic. • Follicles and CH/CLs may be difﬁcult to distinguish without ultrasound imaging. • Mare shows similar behavioural responses to stallion. • Ultrasound examination will demonstrate: ᭺ ᭺ presence of an echogenic CH in early dioestrus; presence of follicles in oestrus. 11 Prolonged luteal phase (prolonged dioestrus) An important cause of infertility.
The ovarian stroma can be seen between the follicles, and is relatively hypoechoic in appearance. (b) Oestrus – one medium-sized follicle predominates; however, several smaller follicles are present at the periphery. It is likely that the larger follicle has been recruited and will ovulate. (c) Preovulatory – a single large, soft, preovulatory follicle is present. The time of ovulation may be anticipated by the size, shape and echogenicity of the follicle. (d) Postovulatory – the follicular cavity has ﬁlled with blood clot and has become markedly echoic in appearance.