Agricultural Trends in India, 1891-1947: Output, by George Blyn

By George Blyn

In a constructing economic climate, agriculture mustn't ever in basic terms offer for a growing to be population, but additionally produce a surplus for funding. For an historical, custom-domi­nated land like India, how does agriculture try to meet those calls for? during this publication, the industrial background of India's agriculture and the level of its improvement, from 1891 to independence (1947), is heavily and authoritatively tested in a examine of output, acreage, and yield in step with acre for the eighteen plants that represent so much of India's agriculture.

The nature of switch for every of those eighteen plants, and for the foodgrain, non­foodgrain, and all-crop teams is defined and analyzed for the fifty-six-year interval as a complete, in addition to for shorter classes, for British India and 6 significant areas. Output and exchange info are mixed to figure out tendencies within the availability of plants. those developments are in comparison with inhabitants figures to point alterations in India's welfare. to provide an explanation for the developments in acre productiveness, shut scrutiny is given to adjustments m the composition of output, depth of cultivation, agricultural expertise, and actual environment.

An broad therapy of the methodological difficulties encountered in assembling enough crop information and statistical measurements precedes the research of agricultural improvement. a correct account needs to stability the multitude of variables serious about the advanced process wherein agricultural details was once compiled and evaluated: the reliability of the village recorders, the alterations in boundary strains and the resultant alterations in files, the impact of weather and international markets, in addition to the bigger styles of historical past and nature, war and catastrophe.

The entire Appendix comprises, between different resource fabrics, the once a year info for person vegetation and crop aggregates and their development premiums for person many years. The textual content comprises quite a few tables, charts, and maps.

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Methods used by the latter for crop estimating are not given in the sources used for this study. Tea and indigo are plan,. t�tion crops included in this study; rubb�r and coffee are other planta­ tion crops reported in Estimates. Coffee estimates were discontinued in 1909 because they were judged unreli;ble; in 1919 they were re-estab­ lished, apparently on better basis. NATURE OF CROP DATA 45 men, sometimes called chaukidars. The kind of crop statistics kept in the village largely reflected the nature of the land revenue assessment system.

1 gives the average yield per acre trend rates for the first four refer�ce decades; rates for each reference decade are given in Appendix Table 5A. Rates for the six minor foodgrain crops are generally less than for the nonfoodgrain crops and less than the rate for wheat, which is what one would expect. It would seem, however, that the actual rates, were they known, for these minor cereal crops would be somewhat less than what was evidently built into them. How much influence did these estimated yields per acre 1 However, to calculate yields per acre for Madras sugarcane, 1891/921900/01 trend in later years was projected back and cyclical variations were added for each year according to the cyclical variations of the Madras rice series from its trend.

The Royal Commission on Agriculture ob­ served, however, ". . "" Condition estimates were expressed in annas of the rupee, sometimes called annawari estimates. The crop would be esti­ mated, for instance, as 8 annas (out of 16 in the rupee) if it were 50% of a normal crop; a 20 anna crop would be 125% of normal. The normal crop was not always equated to 16 annas; in most of British India it was less than 16. ,If 12 12 Indian Council on Agricultural Research, Sample Surveys for the Estimation of Yield of Food Crops, 1944-49, 1951, p.

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