By Alexander Marshak, Anthony Davis
Developments in 3-dimensional cloud radiation during the last few a long time are assessed and distilled into this contributed quantity. Chapters are authored by way of subject-matter specialists who address a vast viewers of graduate scholars, researchers, and a person attracted to cloud-radiation techniques within the sunlight and infrared spectral regions. After introductory chapters and a piece at the basic physics and computational recommendations, the amount generally treats major software components: the effect of clouds at the Earth's radiation funds, that's a necessary point of weather modeling; and distant commentary of clouds, specifically with the complex sensors on present and destiny satellite tv for pc missions.
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Extra resources for 3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres (Physics of Earth and Space Environments)
Months later, to my surprise, I got a hazardous duty citation in the mail. It taught me a lesson I never forgot: aircraft are not vertical proﬁling platforms, and if we ever want to know vertical proﬁles in clouds, we need other methods. 18 Radar is the method of choice for vertical proﬁling, of course, but at present we are frustrated by ambiguities in the retrieval of cloud variables like droplet number concentration and liquid water content from radar. These ambiguities are due not merely to the 6thmoment problem mentioned earlier, but to the presence of objects in clouds which give a larger radar return signal than typical cloud drops.
Wiscombe reached – things we had more or less guessed already, such as that ﬁnite clouds reﬂected less than their 1D counterparts with the same liquid water. S. approach, which is highly practical. Russians object to variance reduction techniques that can’t be justiﬁed rigorously. They claim these techniques are easy to think up, and mostly misbegotten. In the end, our ARM group implemented rigorous techniques26 called “maximum-cross-section” and “local estimation” which enabled us to perform Monte Carlo calculations that we could only dream about a few years earlier.
21 The exponential tails were not based on any theory or analysis of observations but mere convenience, and had the intentional side effect of saving radiation scientists from endless hours of Mie computations for scattering by the larger drops. It’s hard to believe now, but in the late 1970s Mie computations could still drag down the world’s fastest computers. In 1979 I once used 8 hours of time on what was then the world’s fastest supercomputer, a Cray-1 (now in the National Air & Space Museum), for Mie computations, and was chastised for it by the head of the division.